Node-android by InstantWebP2P
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Node-android by InstantWebP2P
Node.js rewrite for Android with the compatible API.

AndroLua
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AndroLua
AndroLua is the Lua interpreter ported to the Android platform. Others have ported Lua to Android, but this project is special:

it includes LuaJava, so you can access (almost) everything the Android API provides
because writing code on the soft keyboard can be hard, you can connect to it using TCP an upload code from your computer

Catroid
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Catroid Website
Catroid is a visual programming language for Android devices that is inspired by the Scratch programming language for PCs, developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the MIT Media Lab. It is the aim of the Catroid project to facilitate the learning of programming skills among children and users of all ages. No desktop or notebook computer is needed.

Whisper Systems :: WhisperCore
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Whisper Systems :: WhisperCore
WhisperCore provides device-level encryption for your phone, protecting all of your data when it counts most.

By default, WhisperCore encrypts your entire data partition at the device level, and can optionally be enabled for your phone's SD card as well. WhisperCore also includes smudge-resistant screen unlock patterns.

Android Open Accessory Development Kit
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Android Open Accessory Development Kit | Android Developers
Many previously released Android-powered devices are only capable of acting as a USB device and cannot initiate connections with external USB devices. Android Open Accessory support overcomes this limitation and allows you to build accessories that can interact with an assortment of Android-powered devices by allowing the accessory to initiate the connection.

An iOS Developer Takes on Android
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Nick Farina - An iOS Developer Takes on Android
So here’s the catch with the wonderful flexible layout system in Android: You must be very careful. If you animate certain kinds of properties, you can easily force the CPU to do all that fancy, expensive layout on each animation frame. And the CPU is very busy right now parsing some JSON from a web API or something, OK?

HTC Desire (GSM): Full Update Guide
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HTC Desire (GSM): Full Update Guide - CyanogenMod Wiki
This guide will walk you through the process of taking the HTC Desire (GSM) from stock to having the ability to flash the latest version of CyanogenMod.

DalvikVM
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DalvikVM.com - Dalvik Virtual Machine insights
The Dalvik virtual machine is a register-based virtual machine, designed and written by Dan Bornstein with contributions from other Google engineers as part of the Android mobile phone platform.

Amarino - "Android meets Arduino"
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Amarino - "Android meets Arduino"
Amarino is a toolkit to connect Android-driven mobile devices with Arduino microcontrollers via Bluetooth. The toolkit provides easy access to internal phone events which can be further processed on the Arduino open-source prototyping platform. Started as a project at MIT Media Lab at the High-Low Tech group, this toolkit seeks to empower people to externalize their phone events to creatively demonstrate them on wearables, living spaces, or other tangibles.

Android Interaction Patterns
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Android Interaction Patterns
This is androidpatterns.com, a set of interaction patterns that can help you design Android apps. An interaction pattern is a short hand summary of a design solution that has proven to work more than once. Please be inspired: use them as a guide, not as a law.